Create a CA, issue server/client certificates and test them via Apache

Peter Lorenzen

Here is a quick way of creating your own CA and issue server and client certificates via OpenSSL.

I will test the certificates via the Apache HTTP Server by configuring one and two-way SSL.

I use Oracle Linux 5.

You should of cause only use this for test scenarios.

Install OpenSSL if needed.

yum install openssl

Configuring your CA

mkdir -p /u01/app/myCA/certs
mkdir /u01/app/myCA/csr
mkdir /u01/app/myCA/newcerts
mkdir /u01/app/myCA/private
cp /etc/pki/tls/openssl.cnf /u01/app/myCA/.
cd /u01/app/myCA
echo 00 > serial
echo 00 > crlnumber
touch index.txt

Change the dir parameter in openssl.cnf to /u01/app/myCA.
Check it.

grep "/u01/app/myCA" openssl.cnf

Create the CA

# Create CA private key
openssl genrsa -des3 -passout pass:qwerty -out  private/rootCA.key 2048

# Remove passphrase 
openssl rsa -passin pass:qwerty -in private/rootCA.key -out private/rootCA.key

# Create CA self-signed certificate
openssl req -config openssl.cnf -new -x509 -subj '/C=DK/L=Aarhus/O=frogger CA/' -days 999 -key private/rootCA.key -out certs/rootCA.crt

Create a SSL Server certificate

# Create private key for the winterfell server
openssl genrsa -des3 -passout pass:qwerty -out private/winterfell.key 2048

# Remove passphrase 
openssl rsa -passin pass:qwerty -in private/winterfell.key -out private/winterfell.key

# Create CSR for the winterfell server
openssl req -config openssl.cnf -new -subj '/C=DK/L=Aarhus/O=frogger/CN=winterfell' -key private/winterfell.key -out csr/winterfell.csr

# Create certificate for the winterfell server
openssl ca -batch -config openssl.cnf -days 999 -in csr/winterfell.csr -out certs/winterfell.crt -keyfile private/rootCA.key -cert certs/rootCA.crt -policy policy_anything

Create a SSL Client certificate

# Create private key for a client
openssl genrsa -des3 -passout pass:qwerty -out private/client.key 2048

# Remove passphrase 
openssl rsa -passin pass:qwerty -in private/client.key -out private/client.key

# Create CSR for the client.
openssl req -config openssl.cnf -new -subj '/C=DK/L=Aarhus/O=frogger/CN=theClient' -key private/client.key -out csr/client.csr

# Create client certificate.
openssl ca -batch -config openssl.cnf -days 999 -in csr/client.csr -out certs/client.crt -keyfile private/rootCA.key -cert certs/rootCA.crt -policy policy_anything

Export the client certificate to pkcs12

# Export the client certificate to pkcs12 for import in the browser
openssl pkcs12 -export -passout pass:qwerty -in certs/client.crt -inkey private/client.key -certfile certs/rootCA.crt -out certs/clientcert.p12

Configure Apache

Install Apache and mod_ssl if needed.

yum install httpd
yum install mod_ssl

Edit /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

#Listen 80
ServerName winterfell

Edit /etc/httpd/conf.d/ssl.conf

SSLCertificateFile /u01/app/myCA/certs/winterfell.crt
SSLCertificateKeyFile /u01/app/myCA/private/winterfell.key
SSLCertificateChainFile /u01/app/myCA/certs/rootCA.crt
SSLCACertificateFile /u01/app/myCA/certs/rootCA.crt
SSLVerifyClient require
SSLVerifyDepth  10

Start the Apache server.

In your browser import rootCA.crt and clientcert.p12.

Now it should work.

{ 12 comments… read them below or add one }

rajanish December 2, 2013 at 16:53

very nice.. it works!

Alex December 5, 2013 at 08:49


Very nice work. Concise.

Do you know if you can configure in browser for a given domain to be only verified against your root CA? Just in case a government of a given country ask for a certificate to be signed by their certificate authority of choice to act as man in the middle.

Peter Lorenzen December 5, 2013 at 21:25

Thanks. Sorry I don’t know.

Ryan December 21, 2013 at 01:22

Hey nice article. Will be doing this for an ocsp responder certificate.

Deevan January 13, 2014 at 11:48

Hey nice article and it works. Can you also let me know how to get it working on IE 8+ or chrome?

André March 24, 2014 at 17:59

You are a life saver!
Thank you for the very helpful article!

Dimka June 19, 2014 at 08:42

Very good. Nice article that gives simple understanding how it works. Now I understand =)

Andrew June 24, 2014 at 07:27

Great article!
It was really helpful and saved a lot of time.

André October 14, 2014 at 10:24

Hi again Peter!

I was trying to renew both the CA and client certificates while keeping backwards compatibility with the previously generated client certificates. So far with no success… Is this possible to do, having executed the method you described?

I would’ve expected it to be a matter of simply generating the CA certificate with the same CA private key… but with a bunch of experimenting, I’ve had no success so far. Any pointers you can give me?

Thanks in advance.

Peter Lorenzen October 14, 2014 at 11:48

Hi André,
I have never tried that myself, but I would also have expected it to work that way.
Regards Peter

Marian September 3, 2015 at 08:56

Very nice and useful. Worked perfectly. Thank you !

Barnali Rakshit March 2, 2016 at 15:23

Thanks for nice article, This is exactly what I was looking for

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